Australia 2022 Election Questionnaire

Human Rights Watch

Below is a question-by-question compilation of responses by The Coalition, The Australian Labor Party (ALP), and The Greens. The ALP did not respond under each individual question but responded under relevant thematic subheadings, so Human Rights Watch has matched their responses to the questions.

Domestic Policy

  1. Should Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions be regulated, and if so, to what levels?

The Coalition said “The Morrison Government is committed to driving down emissions while protecting our economy and jobs. We are one of a handful of countries to have released a detailed economy-wide long-term plan which sets out how we will achieve net zero emissions by 2050.”

The Labor Party said “Creating jobs, cutting power bills and reducing emissions by boosting renewable energy are at the centre of Labor’s Powering Australia Plan. This plan will bring cheaper renewable energy to Australian homes and businesses. Labor’s Powering Australia Plan will reduce emissions by 43 per cent by 2030 – keeping us on track for net zero by 2050.”

The Greens said “We must urgently reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to ensure a safe climate and limit global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial temperatures. The Greens, following the expert recommendations of the Climate Targets Panel, have committed to reduce Australia’s emissions by 75% on 2005 levels by 2030 and achieve net zero by 2035.”

  1. Do you support a time-bound plan to phase out government subsidies for fossil fuels? Why or why not?

The Coalition said “The Coalition Government strongly supports further growth and development in our resources industry. A re-elected Coalition Government will create the business environment that supports growth of Australia’s minerals and energy sector, building on our reputation as a reliable supplier of resources to the world.”

The Labor Party said “A Labor Government will close the yawning gap between our current Federal Government and our business community, agricultural sector and state governments when it comes to investing in the renewables that will power our future. Business has shown leadership. Government must play its part.”

The Greens said “Yes, a staggering $20,000 is handed over every minute of every day from the government to support the burning of coal, oil and gas. By stopping the handouts that encourage the use and development of fossil fuels, we can free up a staggering $98.4 billion over the decade to redirect from these sunset industries to reinvest in the sunrise jobs and industries of the future.”

  1. The age of criminal responsibility in Australia is 10 years old. Should it be raised, to what age, and do you intend to work with states to accomplish that?

The Coalition said “The overwhelming majority of offences involving children are state and territory offences, and not Commonwealth offences. The Coalition does not propose to raise the minimum age of criminal responsibility for Commonwealth offences. Decisions on the age of criminal responsibility in each state and territory is a matter for each jurisdiction.”

The Labor Party said “Labor believes that the age of criminal responsibility is too young and strongly supports moves by Federal, State and Territory Attorneys-General to review it. An Albanese government will work closely with the States and Territories to ensure the age of criminal responsibility reflects what is best for children, for families, and for the communities in which they live.”

The Greens said “The Greens would work with the states to raise the age of legal responsibility to at least 14 years. Instead of jailing children for minor crimes, our plan will support children to get back on the right path through culturally safe and supportive diversionary programs as well as supportive bail and community corrections programs to divert people away from prisons.”

  1. What will you do to address the disproportionate numbers of First Nations people in Australian prisons and jails?

The Coalition said “Our Government has invested $274.5 million in 2021-22 to fund initiatives to improve justice and community safety outcomes for Indigenous Australians. These initiatives include through-care, which provides intensive case management services to support Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in youth detention or prison to transition successfully back into their communities and avoid reoffending; Community Night Patrols, which employ Indigenous people to patrol their local communities and offer culturally sensitive assistance and transportation to a safe place for those at risk of harm; and Custody Notification Services, which ensure that every Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person who is taken into police custody receives a culturally appropriate health and wellbeing check and basic legal information.”

The Labor Party said “Labor is particularly concerned to reduce the over-incarceration of First Nations children, who are 17 times more likely to be imprisoned than non-Indigenous children. An Albanese Labor Government will invest $79 million to expand justice reinvestment initiatives that address the drivers of children’s contact with the criminal legal system.”

The Greens said “Ultimately, the best way to reduce crime is to prevent it. The Greens will reform the criminal legal system by preventing people getting caught up in it in the first place. Prioritising strong communities over prisons and other punitive measures also known as justice reinvestment. The Greens will implement all of the recommendations from the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody, in partnership with First Nations people, particularly the families left behind after a death in custody.”

  1. What will you do to protect transgender children in Australian schools from discrimination?

The Coalition said “The Morrison Government believes all people are entitled to respect, dignity and the opportunity to participate in society, and recognises that to enjoy civil and political rights on an equal basis with others, people need to be able to do so free from discrimination. The Sex Discrimination Act 1984 prohibits discrimination on the grounds of gender identity, sexual orientation and intersex status in many areas of public life, including employment, education and in the provision of goods, services and facilities.”

The Labor Party said “Labor believes all Australians have the right to live their lives free of discrimination. This is why Labor supports the extension of the federal anti-discrimination framework to ensure that Australians are not discriminated against because of their religious beliefs or activities – just as the law already prohibits discrimination on the basis of age, disability, race, sex, gender identity, sex characteristics and sexual orientation. Labor has made clear repeatedly, that any extension of the federal anti-discrimination framework must not come at the expense of existing laws that protect Australians from other forms of discrimination.” The Morrison Government’s religious discrimination legislation, which the Prime Minister now appears to have abandoned, goes some way towards protecting Australians from religious discrimination. But there are aspects of the proposed laws that would diminish existing protections for Australians from other forms of discrimination. The legislation would also provide inadequate protections to people of minority faiths – particularly against vilification and fails to deliver on the Prime Minister’s commitment to protect all school children from discrimination. Labor was also successful in amending the legislation in the House of Representatives to prohibit discrimination against school children on the grounds of sexuality and gender identity.”

The Greens said “The Greens will make schools safer for trans and gender diverse students, and LGBTIQA+ students and teachers more broadly, by: removing provisions that enable discrimination in schools on religious grounds, including s38 of the Sex Discrimination Act; providing over $50m in funding to enable every current and new teacher to receive training on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex, Queer and Questioning (LGBTIQ+) inclusion, and refreshers every five years; creating and implementing guidelines and an inclusive curriculum for schools, including ensuring that the health and physical education curriculum, including sexual education, is LGBTIQA+ inclusive, and; scrapping the School Chaplains Program and investing the $61m a year in secular, inclusive support for students through counsellors and anti-bullying initiatives such as the Safe Schools Program.

  1. Australia ratified the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (OPCAT) in 2017. What will you do to ensure the full implementation of the protocol, which allows for regular visits by independent international and domestic bodies to all places of detention?

The Coalition said “The Morrison Government is committed to implementing this treaty in a practical and effective way, and continues its ongoing discussions with the UN Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. As responsibility for places of detention is spread across federal, state and territory governments, the Commonwealth continues to engage constructively with States and Territories on the establishment of National Preventive Mechanism bodies in each jurisdiction, which will be responsible for monitoring and inspecting facilities in accordance with treaty obligations.”

The Labor Party did not answer the question.

The Greens said “As signatories to the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture, we have an obligation to implement a strong, culturally appropriate, and independent prison oversight system across the country. Many years after we signed the Convention, this system hasn’t been properly set up. The Greens will provide $382m over the estimates, with an equal contribution of funding from the states and territories to set up this monitoring system so that all imprisoned people have their human rights respected and affirmed while in custody. We will also establish a country-wide Police Ombudsman system.”

Foreign Policy

  1. What is your position on offshore processing of asylum seekers?

The Coalition said “The Morrison Government will continue our strong and proven Operation Sovereign Borders policy, which has saved lives, stopped the people smugglers and allowed the removal of all children from detention. Our Government will maintain our policy of regional processing, boat turn-backs where it is safe to do so, and temporary protection visas. We will continue to fund our strong border security arrangements through Operation Sovereign Borders, including to maintain maritime surveillance and enhance capabilities. The Morrison Government will continue to work with our regional partners to combat people smuggling and disrupt irregular migration.”

The Labor Party said “Labor believes Australia can have secure borders while being compassionate. Seeking asylum is a human right that provides persecuted and vulnerable people a route to safety and long-term security to live to their fullest human potential. Regional offshore processing was never meant to be indefinite detention. For almost a decade, this tired Liberal Government has made regional processing an ongoing form of cruelty, with people left to languish for years without a durable solution. At the recent ALP National Conference, we reconfirmed our commitment to: Accept and deliver the New Zealand resettlement offer; Support regional resettlement through the UNHCR. An Albanese Labor Government will maintain our strong border security measures without losing our humanity.”

The Greens said “The Australian Greens’ plan for refugees and people seeking asylum includes abolishing Australia’s arbitrary and cruel offshore processing regime, abolishing the quasi-military law enforcement agency Operation Sovereign Borders, and providing $500 million over four years to support the UNHCR and partner countries in our region to assess people’s claims for asylum made from Indonesia and Malaysia in a timely fashion – as recommended by the Expert Panel on Asylum Seekers, which reported to the PM in 2012 – and provide a ‘dignity package’ which would allow access to healthcare, education, English classes and work permits, to encourage migration through quick, safe, and transparent processes rather than through dangerous and expensive irregular migration channels.”

  1. Australia will take in approximately 17,875 people under its Refugee and Humanitarian Program each year until 2025-26, including the additional places for Afghan nationals. Do you plan to increase or decrease that number, and to what level?

The Coalition said “The Morrison Government is proud of its Humanitarian Program. In recognition of our sustained commitment following Australia’s two decades of operations in Afghanistan, an additional 16,500 places have been available for Afghan nationals under the Humanitarian program and will be equally allocated over the next four years. In conjunction with previous announcements, this brings the total number of places available to Afghans across Australia’s Humanitarian and Migration Programs to 31,500 over the next four program years. We are also supporting the transition of Ukrainians onto a temporary humanitarian (subclass 786) visa and working with international partners to respond to other global humanitarian needs including Myanmar.”

The Labor Party said “Labor remains concerned that the Morrison-Joyce Government has not given assurances to Afghans in Australia that no one will be returned to Afghanistan. This is a simple step that would go a long way. Labor is worried about the impact Temporary Protection Visas and Safe Haven Enterprise Visas are having on Afghan refugees here in Australia. These are people that will never be able to return to Afghanistan but their lives in Australia will remain temporary – unless the Government intervenes. At the recent ALP National Conference, we reconfirmed our commitment to: Increase our refugee intake to 27,000; Set up a community sponsorship program similar to the successful Canadian model, with an additional 5,000 places; Convert temporary protection visa holders to permanent protection visas. The Morrison-Joyce Government has not used its full refugee quota in recent years, leaving thousands of places unfilled. Given the significance of the humanitarian crisis in Ukraine, as well Afghanistan and other regions around the world, Labor calls on Government to meet its humanitarian intake in full.”

The Greens said, “The Australian Greens’ plan for refugees includes increasing Australia’s humanitarian intake to 50,000 people per year, as well as a special intake of 20,000 permanent humanitarian places in response to both the conflicts in Afghanistan and Ukraine (40,000 total), which would be in addition to the annual humanitarian intake.”

  1. Australia adopted a Magnitsky-style sanctions law in 2021. What specific officials or countries in the Asia-Pacific region do you foresee applying that law to?

The Coalition said “Australia has a strong history of promoting and protecting human rights globally, supporting the international rules-based order, and acting for the peace and security of the international community. In December last year, the Coalition Government sharpened our foreign policy tools by passing Magnitsky laws to further our foreign policy interests. The Autonomous Sanctions Amendment (Magnitsky-style and Other Thematic Sanctions) Act 2021 commenced on 8 December 2021. The reform expands the Government’s ability to impose targeted financial sanctions and travel bans against the perpetrators of egregious acts of international concern for new thematic conduct which can be applied in our region where such listings are in the national interest. This includes serious human rights violations and abuses; serious corruption; and significant cyber incidents. These reforms ensure Australia can move in coordination with like-minded partners to impose costs on, influence, and deter those responsible for egregious conduct, wherever it occurs in the world. The Morrison Government does not announce in advance sanctions that are about to be applied. This prevents the targets of sanctions from moving or sheltering assets before they are sanctioned.”

The Labor Party said “Labor has advocated strongly for the implementation of Magnitsky-style legislation in Australia, and it was finally passed late 2021 after ongoing sustained pressure from Labor. The delay by the Morrison-Joyce Government in introducing Magnitsky-style legislation is regrettable, but it is now finally in place and provides a vital tool to send a strong message to those that continue to commit human rights violations around the world. Labor has repeatedly called on the Morrison-Joyce Government to implement targeted sanctions against those responsible for the Myanmar military coup and subsequent violent crackdown – but it has refused to act. This is despite the Government-chaired Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and Trade recommending sanctions against the Tatmadaw in June 2021 and, in August, the Joint Standing Committee on Treaties embarrassingly having to remind the Morrison-Joyce Government once again of the need to act. The Morrison-Joyce Government’s refusal to act over the past year sends precisely the wrong message – that Australia does not care and that we are mere bystanders to authoritarian backsliding in our region.”

The Greens said “The Australian Greens have consistently advocated that those who commit serious human rights violations should be subject to targeted sanctions. We have specifically called for targeted sanctions to be imposed in relation to; Generals who have led the coup in Myanmar, and their associated economic entities; and Chinese government officials who have committed serious human rights violations in Xinjiang, Tibet, or Hong Kong. We also believe there are other credible accounts of serious human rights abuses in other countries in the region which should be documented as evidence, for consideration in relation to potential targeted sanctions. This would include the Philippines, as documented by the reports of the Independent International Commission of Investigation into Human Rights Violations in the Philippines, as well as documenting evidence wherever serious human rights violations are alleged to have occurred, including in countries where Australia has failed to act in line with international peers to support human rights.”

  1. Throughout the Asia-Pacific region, governments from Vietnam to India have suppressed human rights defenders, journalists, and bloggers. What steps should Australia take to promote the rights to freedom of expression, media freedom, and freedom of association throughout the region?

The Coalition said “The Morrison Government actively supports media freedom and the protection of journalists in our region and globally in a number of direct and practical ways including: advocating for the protection of journalists, bilaterally and in multilateral forums including the UN Human Rights Council; and supporting and developing a strong, professional and sustainable media sector in partner countries in the Indo-Pacific region. Australia also supports international action as a member of the Media Freedom Coalition and the UNESCO Group of Friends on the Safety of Journalists. The deliberate targeting of journalists and other non-combatants in war zones is a crime. The importance that the Government places on maintaining the human rights of journalists and human rights defenders is also reflected through new legislation. Sanctions under the Government’s reformed Autonomous Sanctions Framework can be applied in the national interest through the new human rights thematic listing criteria where conduct that limits media freedom also seriously violates one of the three specified rights under the regime. This includes individuals involving the killing, torture, or enslavement of journalists.”

The Labor Party said “Promoting universal human rights is an essential policy objective for Labor, and our diplomatic, economic and international development assistance goals recognise this. Labor has been a strong advocate for human rights and civil liberties on the international stage, and we will continue to pursue effective human rights diplomacy that supports international and regional security in Australia’s national interest. We will continue to pursue effective human rights diplomacy at every appropriate opportunity. Our view is that protection and promotion of internationally-accepted human rights is vital to ensuring a peaceful world where all people have the right to live with dignity, freedom, safety, security and prosperity. We will speak out clearly and consistently in support of human rights around the world, including in our region.”

The Greens said “The Australian Greens believe that Australia must act diplomatically to promote peace, democracy, ecological sustainability, equity and justice, and human rights. The Australian Greens will adopt a human-rights centred approach to foreign policy. That starts with using diplomatic relationships to advocate for human rights around the world, and strengthening multilateral relationships based on a commitment to human rights. The Australian Greens will increase our aid and development budget to 0.7% of GNI by 2030 in line with our commitment to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. We will place the human rights and self-determination of women and girls at the centre of Australian development assistance programs, centring human rights in our development program, and supporting basic freedoms of expression, association, and of the media.”

  1. What steps will you take to promote accountability for war crimes and other atrocity crimes committed in Ukraine since Russia’s full-scale invasion in February?

The Coalition said “The Morrison Government is deeply concerned with the mounting evidence of war crimes, and now, potentially, genocide. Russia has committed egregious war crimes in cities like Mariupol, Bucha, Irpin, Hostomel, and other towns and cities across Ukraine. The list of atrocities is growing by the day, including horrific acts such as torture; executions of civilians and prisoners of war; rape used as a weapon of war; the indiscriminate shelling of civilians; preventing humanitarian evacuations; starving cities through sieges; the deliberate targeting with precision guided missiles of bulk food storage facilities such as grain silo complexes; and forced deportations of civilians. The targeting of civilians and civilian infrastructure is a war crime. Criminality and accountability for war crimes and genocide is a determination for courts, in particular the International Criminal Court (ICC), which is investigating the evidence collected in Ukraine and which has jurisdiction over war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide. We expect such crimes, including the targeting of civilians and sexual violence used as a weapon of war, to be fully investigated. Australia joined with partners in referring the situation in Ukraine to the ICC so that it could immediately investigate these atrocities. We have also offered two specialised Australian personnel to assist the Court with its investigation. The Morrison Government is examining further support through additional investigation officers, given our experience in international investigations concerning Russia, including that related to the downing of MH17 aircraft.”

The Labor Party said “Labor is gravely concerned about the unfolding crisis and the long‑term consequences of the conflict. All Australians stand with the people of Ukraine are and united in condemnation of Russia’ shameful act of aggression. The attack is wholly unprovoked and without justification. Russia alone is the aggressor, and Russia alone bears responsibility for the bloodshed and suffering that is occurring. As US President Biden has said, the world is ready to respond with unity, clarity, and conviction. Australia must stand united with our allies in holding Russia to account. Labor calls on the Morrison-Joyce Government to expel Russian diplomats to underline the diplomatic costs of Russia’s actions. EU countries, including France, Germany and Italy have taken steps to expel 206 Russian diplomats and staff – while allowing Ambassadors to remain in most cases. Australia should follow suit. The mass killing of innocent civilians and the use of rape as a weapon of war can only be described as war crimes. Those responsible must be held to account – and in the first instance there must be immediate diplomatic consequences. Labor supports all efforts to ensure these crimes are thoroughly investigated and prosecuted through the International Criminal Court process, including the provision of Australian experts to assist the investigation.”

The Greens said “The Australian Greens called for and have supported the actions of the Australian Government in imposing targeted sanctions against Russian officials and oligarchs responsible for the invasion of Ukraine. We also support the actions of the Australian Government and other nations in referring the situation in Ukraine to the International Criminal Court. The Australian Greens have also called for further steps, including boycotts of Russian fossil fuels, additional humanitarian visas, and a cancellation of Ukrainian debt, in order to respond to the invasion of Ukraine.”

  1. Do you support enacting legislation banning the importation of goods made with suspected forced labor from Xinjiang in China, similar to recent legislation passed in the United States?

The Coalition said “On 21 April 2022, the Morrison Government tabled our detailed and comprehensive response to the report of the Senate Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Legislation Committee Inquiry into Customs Amendment (Banning Goods Produced By Uyghur Forced Labour) Bill. Forced labour is a fundamental breach of human rights, and should be actively prevented and called out through concerted global action. The Government is strongly committed to working with Australian businesses and key partners to combat forced labour in global supply chains. Business should apply voluntary, rigorous due diligence to mitigate the potential of contracting with international firms linked to forced labour. In continuing to combat forced labour we will draw expertise from all jurisdictions, in consultation with Australian agencies and stakeholders, to meaningfully address this issue either by legislation or other transparency measures, noting the recent passage of the Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act in the US.”

The Labor Party said “We have called on the Government to strengthen Australia’s Modern Slavery regime to address forced Labour around the world including in Xinjiang, and consider targeted sanctions on foreign companies, officials and other entities known to be directly profiting from Uyghur forced labour and other human rights abuses.”

The Greens said “As set out in the Australian Greens additional comments on the Customs Amendment (Banning Goods Produced By Uyghur Forced Labour) Bill 2020, the Australian Greens supported an approach that involves the prohibition of the import of any goods made wholly or in part with forced labour, regardless of geographic origin. This should be accompanied by the Australian Government’s ratification of the ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention.”

  1. The Brereton report, commissioned by the inspector-general of the Australian Defence Force, examined war crimes allegedly committed by the Australian Defence Force’s Special Forces during the war in Afghanistan between 2005 and 2016. Do you support compensation or other redress for Afghan victims of alleged war crimes and their families as recommended by the report?

The Coalition said “The Morrison Government established the Office of the Special Investigator (OSI) to address any potential criminal matters raised in the IGADF Afghanistan Inquiry report. Issues of compensation are complex and will continue to be worked through, while ensuring that it does not compromise any relevant criminal processes. Necessarily, this may require deferral of action in some circumstances.”

The Labor Party said “Labor is deeply concerned about the ongoing humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan. It has been devastating for the people of Afghanistan, for Afghan-Australians fearful for their loved ones’ safety, for the Afghan staff that supported our military and diplomatic operations for over 20 years, and for our own veterans. In failing to assist those Afghans and Afghan-Australians owed support by Australia ahead of military withdrawal, the Morrison-Joyce Government left too many behind in their time of greatest need.”

The Greens said “The Australian Greens recognise that we must make amends to both personnel and civilians that have experienced harm in Afghanistan. To achieve this, the Greens will establish a reparations fund in acknowledgement of the harms caused by ADF personnel during deployments, including paying reparations to the victims and families of alleged war crimes committed in Afghanistan at the hands of Australian Special Forces members.”

  1. Which international crimes do you consider to be taking place in the following situations and what action should Australia be taking in response to them?

a) Crimes against humanity or other atrocity crimes by the Chinese government against Uyghurs and other Turkic peoples in Xinjiang.

b) Crimes against humanity of apartheid and persecution by the Israeli government against Palestinians.

c) Crimes against humanity or other atrocity crimes by the Myanmar junta against the Rohingya and other ethnic minority groups.

The Coalition said

a) “The Morrison Government shares the grave concerns of the international community about credible reports of severe human rights abuses against Uyghurs and other Muslim ethnic minorities in Xinjiang. The government has been clear and consistent in raising our concerns directly with China, in joint statements with other like-minded governments, and in partnership with a broad range of member state at the United Nations. We urge China, as we do all countries, to act in ways consistent with its human rights obligations. We liaise regularly with a broad, cross-regional range of partners on this issue. Australia will continue to raise our concerns about the situation in Xinjiang directly with China, in joint statements with the international community and at the United Nations.”

b) “The Morrison Government remains a strong supporter of a two-state solution to the conflict between the Palestinians and Israel, where Israel and a future Palestinian state exist in peace and security within internationally recognized borders. We do not agree with the characterisations of Israel in the question, and we remain a firm supporter of the existence of the state of Israel. The allegation of apartheid is one-sided, and does not address the actual causes of the complex security measures Israel employs to protect itself from a long history of clear acts of war and terrorism directed against it. The way forward is a negotiated peace agreement, not further division and provocation.”

c) “The Morrison Government was deeply disturbed by the UN Fact-Findings Mission’s (FFM) conclusions that war crimes and crimes against humanity occurred in Rakhine State. In response to the FFM’s concerning conclusions, the Government imposed targeted financial sanctions and travel bans on five senior Myanmar (Tatmadaw) officers. Australia remains focused on pursuing accountability for the atrocities in Rakhine State and justice for the Rohingya, and encouraging the creation of conditions conducive to voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable returns, (including through our cooperation with Indonesia as Co-Chair of the Bali Process), and providing lifesaving humanitarian assistance for those in need. The Independent Investigative Mechanism for Myanmar (IIMM), the action by Gambia before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) based on the Genocide Convention, as well as the investigation authorised by the International Criminal Court (ICC) into certain crimes against humanity are separate avenues through which accountability for serious international crimes in Myanmar are being pursued. Australia encourages Myanmar to engage with these mechanisms, as well as to address war crimes and serious human rights violations founded by its domestic Independent Commission of Inquiry.”

The Labor Party said

a) “We have called for unfettered access for the United Nations to Xinjiang and use all bilateral and multilateral forums to urge the Chinese Government to uphold its international human rights obligations.”

b) “Labor has long supported and continues to support, an enduring and just two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict based on the right of Israel to live in peace within secure borders internationally recognised and agreed by the parties, and reflecting the legitimate aspirations of the Palestinian people to also live in peace and security within their own state. Labor will continue to call on both sides of the conflict to refrain from any actions that hamper peaceful outcomes for both the Israeli and Palestinian people.”

c) No response provided.

The Greens said

a) “The Australian Greens have consistently called for a strong response by the Australian Government to the crimes against humanity being perpetuated against the Uyghur people, including targeted sanctions against those officials who commit serious human rights violations.”

b) “The Australian Greens have consistently called for an end to the Occupation of Palestine, and for the Australian Government to respond to the work of Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, the UN Special Rapporteur and others who have described the actions of the Israeli government as constituting apartheid. The Australian Greens have consistently called for Australia to recognise Palestine, and for a suspension of military trade with governments that are credibly alleged to have committed human rights violations, including Myanmar, Indonesia, the Philippines and Saudi Arabia as well as Israel. The Australian Greens have welcomed the ICC Chief Prosecutor’s announcement of the ICC’s jurisdiction in in relation to war crimes allegedly committed in Palestine.”

c) “The Australian Greens have consistently called for targeted sanctions against key generals and their associated economic entities in Myanmar, following the crimes against humanity and other serious human rights violations that have been committed against civilians by the junta.”

  1. About 80 Australian nationals, including 60 women and children, are detained in camps and prisons in Northeast Syria as Islamic State (ISIS) suspects or their family members. What steps do you intend to take to address this situation, such as creating a pathway for their return and rehabilitation and appropriate criminal investigations?

The Coalition said “The Morrison Government’s policy is to deal with foreign terrorist fighters as far from our shores as possible. Our Government’s ability to provide consular assistance to Australians in Syria remains limited due to the dangerous security situation there. Australia funds humanitarian partners who work to provide access to health care in the camps. We will not put Australian officials, forces or the public in danger. Where any of these individuals do return to Australia, it will be on our terms.”

The Labor Party did not answer the question.

The Greens said “The Australian Greens have consistently called for the Australian Government to fulfil its human rights obligations and undertake all possible efforts to bring home the women and children detained in Syria, and undertake appropriate criminal investigations. Greens Foreign Affairs spokesperson Senator Rice has met with advocates and repeatedly raised the issue with DFAT officials through Senate Estimates, seeking action from the Australian Government.”

The Australian Labor Party did not respond under each individual question but responded under relevant thematic subheadings. See here.

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