Justice critical to fighting sexual violence in conflict

The United Nations

Women’s rights are human rights, and universal in times of war and peace, a senior UN official told the Security Council on Wednesday, urging ambassadors to ensure accountability for conflict-related sexual violence.

Pramila Patten, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative working to end rape as a weapon of war, was addressing a high-level debate on strengthening accountability as a means to deliver justice for survivors and prevent future violence.

War’s oldest and least-condemned crime

Recalling that the Council has passed 10 resolutions on Women, Peace and Security, five of which focus on preventing and addressing conflict-related sexual violence, Ms. Patten began by asking what those declarations mean right now for a woman in Ukraine, Afghanistan, Myanmar or Tigray in northern Ethiopia.

“Every new wave of warfare brings with it a rising tide of human tragedy, including new waves of war’s oldest, most silenced, and least-condemned crime,” she said.

‘Significant increase’ in cases

Ms. Patten presented a handful of the horrifying cases of rape and other violations included in her latest report, revealing what she called “the emboldening effects of impunity”.

The report covers some 18 country situations and documents 3,293 UN-verified cases committed last year – 800 more than in 2020, representing “a significant increase”.

Most of those targeted – 97 per cent – were women and girls, while 83 cases concerned men and boys, mainly in detention centres. In 12 cases, lesbian, gay, trans, queer or intersex (LGBTQI) persons were targeted.

Prosecution as prevention

Ms. Patten underscored how prosecution is critical, and a form of prevention, as it can help turn the culture of impunity for these crimes, towards a culture of deterrence.

“Whereas impunity normalizes violence, justice reinforces global norms. It is time to move from visibility to accountability, and to ensure that today’s documentation translates into tomorrow’s prosecutions,” she said.

Regarding the way forward, her report calls for targeted action to reinforce prevention, such as through political and diplomatic engagement to address sexual violence in ceasefire and peace agreements.

Other recommended measures include use of early warning indicators of sexual violence as well as threat analysis, curtailing the flow of small arms, gender-responsive justice and security sector reform, together with amplifying the voices of survivors.

Nadia Murad briefs the Security Council meeting on women and peace and security.
Nadia Murad briefs the Security Council meeting on women and peace and security.

Justice and accountability

Nobel laureate Nadia Murad was among thousands of women from the Yazidi minority group in northern Iraq who were sold into sexual slavery and raped by ISIL terrorists, the group officially known now as Da’esh, in 2014.

Eight years on, some 2,800 women and children remain in the hands of the terrorist group, she said.

“The pursuit of justice is one of the most visible forms of accountability,” she told the Council, citing the historic genocide conviction of an ISIL fighter by a German court last year. She wondered if the international community will do more.

Action, not pity

“As survivors of sexual violence, it is not easy for us to tell our stories. But we do it to prevent what happened to us from happening to others,” said Ms. Murad, who is also a Goodwill Ambassador with the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

“We are called brave, but the courage we really want to see is from leaders in a position to do something, whether they are Heads of State, Member States here at the UN, or corporate leaders. We need more than moral outrage; we need action.”

Ms. Murad called for the Council to refer the ISIL case to the International Criminal Court, or to establish a hybrid court that will prosecute the group’s crimes. She also urged other nations to follow Germany’s example.

Survivors have found the strength to rebuild their lives and help their families, communities, and countries, she said, so surely the world can find the strength to take meaningful steps to end sexual violence in conflict.

“As survivors, we look to you, the leaders in this room, to act with the same courage we have shown. Survivors do not want pity; we want justice.”

‘Murad Code’ launched

During the debate, Ms. Murad announced the launch of a new initiative for collecting evidence of rape in war.

The Murad Code is a set of guidelines for journalists, investigators, and others documenting and investigating conflict-related sexual violence.

They were shaped by feedback from survivors around the globe, she said, and aim to promote greater respect, understanding, transparency, and healing.

The Murad Code was developed with funding from the United Kingdom, the Security Council president for April.

UK Minister of State, Lord Tariq Ahmad, who chaired the meeting, called for the code to become the “gold standard” for non-governmental organizations, government agencies and human rights groups.

“Putting survivors and at the centre of investigations should not be an option. It should be done by everyone, everywhere,” he said.

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