Tracing and controlling High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza

Scientists have discovered a route of introduction for High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus (HPAIV) H5N8 into Japan and, in parallel, have investigated the potential of two human anti-influenza drugs for the control of HPAI in birds.


The Northern Pintail, a migratory duck, one of which carried the High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus H5N8 to Japan (Photo: Kohei Ogasawara).

Since October 30, 2020, there have been over 30 recorded outbreaks of High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza (HPAI) in domestic poultry and wild fowl in Japan. This outbreak was caused by the influenza A virus H5N8, a known High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus (HPAIV). In such a scenario, identification of the source of the virus and its transmission route is important to control its spread.

A team of scientists led by Professor Yoshihiro Sakoda of Hokkaido University have recently found the probable route of introduction of the current HPAIV into Japan – by migratory birds from Europe. Separately, they showed that anti-influenza drugs used for humans can potentially be used to treat HPAI in poultry and wild fowl, providing an alternative to culling infected birds. Their findings were published within a week of each other in the journal Viruses.

HPAI is a devastating disease in poultry, leading to large losses both economically and materially. Once present in domesticated poultry, the primary means of controlling HPAI is by culling all infected populations. There is no approved drug for the treatment of HPAI. In addition, it can infect captive wild birds, such as those in zoos and sanctuaries, which has major implications for the protection and conservation of endangered species.

In addition, HPAI is closely related to influenza in humans; certain strains of HPAIV have jumped to humans in the past, most recently in mid February 2021, in Russia. For prevention and control, it is vital to track the spread of this disease.


Northern Pintails on Lake Komuke, eastern Hokkaido, the site where the infected feces sample was collected (Photo: Kohei Ogasawara).

The scientists collected migratory duck feces samples from the lakeside of Lake Komuke, eastern Hokkaido in October 2020. After a number of tests, they confirmed the presence of H5N8 virus in one of the samples. Further, their genetic analysis showed that the H5N8 virus was closely related to the variants that caused outbreaks in Europe from late 2019 to early 2020 and the variants found in Korea and southern Japan from October to November 2020, rather than from the H5N8 viruses in East Asia from 2018-2019. This suggested that the H5N8 virus transmitted with migratory birds from Europe to Eastern Asia within 10 months. In addition, the team found that it is a different H5N8 variant that is causing current outbreaks in Europe, raising the alarm that the northern biosphere is becoming a reservoir of HPAIV.

The scientists also investigated two antivirals, baloxavir marboxil (BXM) and peramivir (PR), used for the treatment of influenza in humans for their potential to treat HPAI in poultry. In their experiments, both drugs improved the survival rate of infected chickens and reduced viral amounts in their organs and feces, with BXM showing higher efficacy. Further work on BXM suggested that an early single-administration of BXM at doses of 2.5 mg/kg or higher would be most effective for the treatment of HPAI in real-life settings.

“Based on our findings, the government authorities warned poultries in Japan in November last year, which helped local businesses take measures to prevent potential outbreaks. As in the past years, we will continue to monitor HPAIV in migratory birds visiting Hokkaido as well as researching possible treatments of the disease,” said Sakoda.

The next steps would be to confirm if the strain of H5N8 detected by the scientists is responsible for the ongoing HPAI outbreak in Japan, and to verify if BXM is capable of treating HPAI in rare wild birds and poultry farms.


Professor Sakoda at work in his laboratory (Photo: Hokkaido University).

Original Article:

Augustin Twabela, et al. Evaluation of Baloxavir Marboxil and Peramivir for the Treatment of High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza in Chickens. Viruses. December 8, 2020.

DOI: 10.3390/v12121407

Norikazu Isoda, et al. Re-Invasion of H5N8 High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus Clade 2.3.4.4b in Hokkaido, Japan, 2020. Viruses. December 14, 2020.

DOI: 10.3390/v12121439

Funding:

Augustin Twabela, et al.: This research was supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development, grant number JPMEERF18S20103, and the Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-GRID), funded by the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) grant number JP18Fm0108008. The Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) also supported this work within the framework of the Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) grant number JP20jm0110019.

Norikazu Isoda, et al.: This research was mainly supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development, grant number JPMEERF18S20103. This work was partially supported by the e-ASIA joint research program, funded by the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) grant number JP20jm0210054h0004. The AMED and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) also partially supported this work within the framework of the Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) grant number JP20jm0110019.

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