5-sigma standard model anomaly is possible

American Physical Society

One of the best chances for proving beyond-the-standard-model physics relies on something called the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. The standard model insists that the CKM matrix, which describes the mixing of quarks, should be unitary. But growing evidence suggests that during certain forms of radioactive decay, the unitarity of the CKM matrix might break.

At the 2021 Fall Meeting of the APS Division of Nuclear Physics, researchers discuss how a NASA lunar mission and major theoretical progress could help snap the standard model.

The free neutron lifetime plays an important role in testing CKM matrix unitarity. However, two prevailing methods for measuring it conflict severely. So Jack Wilson and a team at The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and Durham University decided to think outside the box—by going to outer space.

Piggybacking on data from NASA’s Lunar Prospector Mission, which sent a spacecraft to orbit the moon, the scientists made the second-ever free neutron lifetime measurement from space. They reduced uncertainty by an order of magnitude.

“Our result opens up a third way of measuring the neutron lifetime. Using this technique in a dedicated mission could bring to an end a decades-long puzzle in fundamental physics,” said Wilson, who will share the results at the meeting on October 13.

A publication is forthcoming the same day from Physical Review C.

Ultimately, breaking the CKM matrix unitarity—and finding physics beyond the standard model—would demand a stronger discrepancy between theory and experiment. The most recent review of the field measured the disagreement at about three sigma.

“The current significant level of the observed anomalies is not yet sufficient to declare a discovery. The major limiting factor is the precision level of the standard model theory inputs,” said Chien Yeah Seng, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Bonn.

At the meeting, Seng will share the story behind the theoretical research that revealed this hint of new physics and will discuss progress in making the theory side more accurate.

His collaborator Luchang Jin, a professor at the University of Connecticut and one of the theoretical pioneers behind the recent muon g–2 calculations, presents recent research refining a key theoretical component. The study dramatically reduces uncertainties in the low energy constants used for theoretical calculations.

Seng will lay out the path to finding a five-sigma discrepancy, including Jin’s work on radiative corrections, isospin-breaking corrections, and nuclear structure corrections. He predicts we could see a breakthrough even in the next few years.

USEFUL LINKS

Press Highlights: https://www.aps.org/newsroom/vpr/dnp/2021/#highlights

Meeting Website: https://web.mit.edu/dnp2021/

Scientific Program: https://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/DNP21/APS_epitome

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ABOUT DNP

The Division of Nuclear Physics (DNP), established in 1966, is comprised of scientists and educators who study fundamental problems related to the nature of matter. Nuclear scientists probe the properties of nuclei and nuclear matter and the interactions of their ultimate constituents — quarks and gluons. They also address interdisciplinary questions: the basis of fundamental symmetries in nature, the first moments of the universe, the origin of the elements, education, and the application of nuclei and nuclear techniques to meet societal needs including medical diagnoses and treatment, energy, advanced materials, and Homeland Security. DNP interests have significant overlap with other APS Divisions, Topical Groups and Forums.

ABOUT APS

The American Physical Society (APS) is a nonprofit membership organization working to advance and diffuse the knowledge of physics through its outstanding research journals, scientific meetings, and education, outreach, advocacy, and international activities. APS represents over 55,000 members, including physicists in academia, national laboratories, and industry in the United States and throughout the world. Society offices are located in College Park, Maryland (Headquarters), Ridge, New York, and Washington, DC.

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