Child with meningococcal disease

The Department of Health today reported that a child has been discharged from hospital after being diagnosed with serogroup C meningococcal disease.

Meningococcal disease is an uncommon, life-threatening illness caused by a bacterial infection of the blood and/or the membranes that line the spinal cord and brain, and occasionally of other sites, such as the throat, lungs or large joints.

There have been three cases reported to date in 2019, comprising one serogroup B, one serogroup C and one serogroup W meningococcal infections.

The incidence of meningococcal disease had previously decreased significantly in WA – down from a peak of 86 cases in 2000 to a low of 16 cases in 2013 – but is now increasing again due to the emergence of new virulent strains of serogroup W, and to a lesser extent serogroup Y, meningococcal bacteria.

A total of 41 cases were notified in WA in 2018. This was less than the 46 cases notified in 2017, but well above the long term average for annual cases. The number of serogroup W cases in 2018 (30) was also the highest reported in any year.

The Department of Health routinely identifies the close contacts of all notified cases of meningococcal disease and provides them with information and, where appropriate, antibiotics and a vaccine. This is to minimise the chance of further spread of the organism to others, should one or more of the contacts be carrying the strain that caused disease.

Meningococcal bacteria are carried harmlessly in the back of the nose and throat by about 10-20 per cent of the population at any one time. Very rarely, the bacteria invade the bloodstream or tissues and cause serious infections.

Meningococcal bacteria are not easily spread from person-to-person. The bacterium is present in droplets discharged from the nose and throat when coughing or sneezing, but is not spread by saliva and does not survive more than a few seconds in the environment.

Invasive meningococcal infection is most common in babies and young children, and older teenagers and young adults, but infection can occur at any age. Serogroup W and Y infections are associated with a third age peak in adults over 60 years.

Symptoms may include high fever, chills, headache, neck stiffness, nausea and vomiting, drowsiness, confusion, and severe muscle and joint pains. Young children may not complain of symptoms, so fever, pale or blotchy complexion, vomiting, lethargy (blank staring, floppiness, inactivity, being hard to wake, or poor feeding) and rash are important signs.

Sometimes – but not always – symptoms may be accompanied by the appearance of a spotty red-purple rash that looks like small bleeding points beneath the skin or bruises.

Although treatable with antibiotics, meningococcal infection can progress very rapidly, so it is important that anyone experiencing these symptoms seeks medical attention promptly. With appropriate treatment, most people with the disease recover, although around 5 to 10 per cent will die and around 15 per cent may experience complications such as hearing loss, or gangrene requiring skin grafts or amputations.

From July 2018, a vaccine to protect against four serogroups of the meningococcal disease (serogroups A, C, W and Y) is provided free to children at 12 months of age. There is also a WA meningococcal ACWY vaccine catch-up program for children aged 1-4 years.

As a result of the increase in serogroup W and Y disease in WA over the past three years, a funded state-wide meningococcal ACWY vaccination program for adolescents aged 15 to 19 years commenced in 2017. In 2018 and 2019, the program is targeting incoming Year 10 students in schools, while other individuals aged 15-19 years can currently continue to access free catch-up vaccination through other immunisation providers.

Details of the 12 months to 4 years and adolescent (15-19 years) meningococcal ACWY vaccine program, including where to access the free vaccine, are available at: http://healthywa.wa.gov.au/Articles/J_M/Meningococcal-vaccine

A vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal infection is available on prescription.

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