At its meeting today, the Board decided to leave the cash rate unchanged at 1.50 per cent.
The global economy grew above trend in 2018, although it slowed in the second half of
the year. Unemployment rates in most advanced economies are low. The outlook for global
growth remains reasonable, although downside risks have increased. The trade tensions
are affecting global trade and some investment decisions. Growth in the Chinese economy
has continued to slow, with the authorities easing policy while continuing to pay close
attention to the risks in the financial sector. Globally, headline inflation rates have
moved lower due to the decline in oil prices, although core inflation has picked up in a
number of economies.
Financial conditions in the advanced economies tightened in late 2018, but remain
accommodative. Equity prices declined and credit spreads increased, but these moves have
since been partly reversed. Market participants no longer expect a further tightening of
monetary policy in the United States. Government bond yields have declined in most
countries, including Australia. The Australian dollar has remained within the narrow
range of recent times. The terms of trade have increased over the past couple of years,
but are expected to decline over time.
The central scenario is for the Australian economy to grow by around 3 per cent this
year and by a little less in 2020 due to slower growth in exports of resources. The
growth outlook is being supported by rising business investment and higher levels of
spending on public infrastructure. As is the case globally, some downside risks have
increased. GDP growth in the September quarter was weaker than expected. This was
largely due to slow growth in household consumption and income, although the consumption
data have been volatile and subject to revision over recent quarters. Growth in
household income has been low over recent years, but is expected to pick up and support
household spending. The main domestic uncertainty remains around the outlook for
household spending and the effect of falling housing prices in some cities.
The housing markets in Sydney and Melbourne are going through a period of adjustment,
after an earlier large run-up in prices. Conditions have weakened further in both
markets and rent inflation remains low. Credit conditions for some borrowers are tighter
than they have been. At the same time, the demand for credit by investors in the housing
market has slowed noticeably as the dynamics of the housing market have changed. Growth
in credit extended to owner-occupiers has eased to an annualised pace of 5½ per cent.
Mortgage rates remain low and there is strong competition for borrowers of high credit
The labour market remains strong, with the unemployment rate at 5 per cent. A further
decline in the unemployment rate to 4¾ per cent is expected over the next couple of
years. The vacancy rate is high and there are reports of skills shortages in some areas.
The stronger labour market has led to some pick-up in wages growth, which is a welcome
development. The improvement in the labour market should see some further lift in wages
growth over time, although this is still expected to be a gradual process.
Inflation remains low and stable. Over 2018, CPI inflation was 1.8 per cent and in
underlying terms inflation was 1¾ per cent. Underlying inflation is expected to pick up
over the next couple of years, with the pick-up likely to be gradual and to take a
little longer than earlier expected. The central scenario is for underlying inflation to
be 2 per cent this year and 2¼ per cent in 2020. Headline inflation is expected to
decline in the near term because of lower petrol prices.
The low level of interest rates is continuing to support the Australian economy. Further
progress in reducing unemployment and having inflation return to target is expected,
although this progress is likely to be gradual. Taking account of the available
information, the Board judged that holding the stance of monetary policy unchanged at
this meeting would be consistent with sustainable growth in the economy and achieving
the inflation target over time.