Bottom Line: The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against the use of beta carotene or vitamin E supplements for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or cancer and concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to make a recommendation about the use of multivitamin and single- or paired-nutrient supplements (other than beta carotene and vitamin E) for the prevention of CVD or cancer. According to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 52% of surveyed adults reported using at least one dietary supplement in the prior 30 days and 31% reported using a multivitamin-mineral supplement. Inflammation and oxidative stress have been shown to have a role in both CVD and cancer, and dietary supplements may have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. This has served as a rationale for proposing dietary supplements as a means to prevent both CVD and cancer. The USPSTF routinely makes recommendations about the effectiveness of preventive care services, and this recommendation replaces and is consistent with its 2014 statement.
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